As the engine of the human body, the heart occupies an incomparable position in the body.
Obligations, however, go hand in hand with responsibilities. The fate of the heart is from birth to work to death, but why is the difference so great between individuals? While some people go into cardiac arrest at 50, centenarians are enjoying celebrity care.
In addition, the macro big data shows that historically unprecedented worldwide trends in population aging are predicted to become an incessant burden on governmental healthcare finances, for which heart health is one of the top concerns among the aged group1.
Cardiovascular disease remains the major cause of mortality in older adults, eclipsing all forms of cancer by age of 75. Furthermore, age-related decline in heart function, which includes dysfunction in both diastole and systole, has been shown to be strongly associated with frailty. Because of the immense burden of heart dysfunction on the elderly population, the development of treatments that can improve heart health in aged individuals remains a top priority for extending human healthspan2.
NMN is an ingredient found in nature with a range of potential cardiovascular benefits.
NMN can protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury
Takanobu Yamamoto, a famous cardiovascular professor, has made a large number of case studies on ischemia-reperfusion injury in his research project. It is proved that NMN can effectively reduce the incidence of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion and thus protect the heart from such injury.
Figure：Data from the study of NMN against ischemia-reperfusion injury
Stimulation of the cytosolic NAD+ dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is cardioprotective against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. NAD+ precursors are thought to induce cardioprotection via SIRT13-4. NMN may: Protect perfused hearts against IR(functional recovery: NMN 42±7% vs. Vehicle 11±3%) via stimulating cardiac glycolysis and cytosolic acidification
NMN has protective effects on heart failure and cardiomyopathies
Heart failure is the end stage of heart disease development and refers to the inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to match the metabolic requirements of tissues due to impaired systole and/or diastole. NMN was found to：Increase the NAD+ levels and normalized the mitochondrial protein acetylation levels in cardiac tissue6。 Preserve the cardiac contractile function and protects CM-K4KO mice from heart failure during pressure overload5.
Figure：Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in cardiac metabolism. NAD is used in fuel metabolism within the heart. The predominant substrate for energy production in the cardiomyocyte is fatty acids. Through fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO), NAD is reduced to NADH. NADH is used and oxidized to NAD in oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP. Within conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction and ischemia, the heart relies on carbohydrates and glycolysis for the generation of ATP. Glycolysis reduces NAD to NADH. Subsequently, pyruvate is converted to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase to aid in the regeneration of the oxidized NAD. Glucose 6-phosphate from the glycolytic pathway can be shunted to the pentose phosphate shuttle where the phosphorylated form of NAD (NADP) is reduced to NADPH. Acetyl-CoA can be generated from pyruvate, ketone bodies, and amino acids to participate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The generation of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) from amino acids can also contribute to energy production within the TCA cycle. Metabolic reprogramming in failing hearts away from FAO and toward glycolytic and ketone body oxidation is predicted to decrease the NAD-to-NADH ratio, having major implications in cellular processes. Furthermore, decreasing NAD content by downregulation of biosynthesis or upregulation of consumption may limit metabolic processes.
Among the many studies that have been done on cardiac protection and the role of NMN in it, one condition that has been taken for granted by scientists is the availability of high-quality NMN test materials. In the production and application of food supplements, the quality of NMN raw material is always the most important. Whether in the process of development, mass production, quality control, transportation, storage, etc., only to do the best as Uthever ®NMN, to ensure that high-quality NMN ingredients can be integrated into dietary supplements in the best state.
- Kathryn F. Mills, Shohei Yoshida, Liana R. Stein et al. Long-Term Administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Mitigates Age-Associated Physiological Decline in Mice. 2016, Cell Metabolism 24, 795–806
- Jeremy A. Whitson, Alessandro Bitto, Huiliang Zhang et al. SS-31 and NMN: Two paths to improve metabolism and function in aged hearts. Aging Cell. 2020; 19: e13213
- Sergiy M. Nadtochiy, Yves T. wang, Keith Nehrke et al. Cardioprotection by nicotinamide mononucleotide(NMN): Involvement of glycolysis and acidic pH. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2018; 121: 155-162
- Takanobu Yamamoto, Jaemin Byun, Peiyong Zhai et al. Nicotinamide mononucleotide, an intermediate of NAD+ synthesis, protects the heart from ischemia and reperfusion. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 6;9(6):e98972.
- Hong W, Mo F, Zhang Z et al. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ Metabolism. Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 8:246. DOI: 10.3389/f cell.2020.00246
- Daniel S. Matasic, Charles Brenner, and Barry London. Emerging potential benefits of modulating NAD+ metabolism in cardiovascular disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 314: H839-H852, 2018